This module is for Grades: 9-10 Welcome

A revolution is the overthrow and replacement of an established government by the people governed. There are many different reasons for revolutions. Some revolutions are to establish independence from another country; others may be to establish a different form of government, or to gain rights and freedoms for groups of people within the society. By the late 1700s, the Americas, inspired by Enlightenment ideas, were captivated by the French Revolution. The French ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity motivated many Latin Americans to rise up against their French, Spanish and Portuguese masters. In this module, you will read about the revolutions that occurred in the Caribbean, Mexico and South America. You will learn about these revolutions through the analysis of primary and secondary sources of information.

Module Objectives

By the end of this module, you will be able to:

  • Find relationships among primary and secondary sources of information that identify where information from different sources converges and where it differs.

a scene from a battle between soldiers in blue and the indigenous people

This painting shows the Battle at San Domingo, depicting a struggle between Polish troops in French service and Haitian rebels.
Image credit: January Suchodolski via Wikimedia CommonsOpens a new window

Focus Standard

RH.9-10.9 – Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.


  • Analyze the kinds of information each type of source offers, and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each source.
  • Place each source in its historical context and analyze how that historical context affects point of view, bias or purpose for writing.
  • Draw conclusions, citing evidence from both primary and secondary sources.